Key Issues in the Jerk

anko Rusev (Bulgaria) performs the Clean & Jerk
Figure 1: The Jerk performed by Yanko Rusev (Bulgaria).

The Jerk is a highly complex movement that many athletes in Weightlifting find harder to master than the Snatch. In the Jerk, athletes must overcome several key issues if they are to become good exponents of the lift. These key issues are as follows:

Issue #1: The extreme heaviness of the barbell

Although Weightlifters are masters of ‘heaviness’, an exceptional performer in the Clean and Jerk will lift in excess of 80% of their best Back Squat. In addition to excellence of technique, the athlete will need great courage, will power and tenacity to complete a Clean and Jerk that is near to the limit of their strength capacity.

Issue #2: Achieving and maintaining a lockout of the elbows with the weight overhead

If an athlete, for anatomical reasons, has a difficulty in maintaining an elbow lockout, then the likelihood of reduced performance potential in the Jerk increases significantly.

Issue #3: Maintaining balance and control of the weight overhead

Even when both elbows are locked out, the athlete will experience significant difficulty in maintaining balance and control of the weight overhead. This is a matter of physics. In the situation where the athlete has a barbell of twice bodyweight overhead, the combined centre of mass (of the barbell and lifter) will be situated at approximately neck height or higher (see figure 2 below). The higher the combined centre of mass, the greater the balance problem.

Jerk Combined Centre of Mass
Figure 2: The heavier the barbell the higher the combined centre of mass rises

Issue #4: Structural integrity of body in receiving position

The Jerk is a movement that is unforgiving of any weakness in the position of the body in the receiving position. An athlete may elevate the bar high enough, and have sufficient lockout strength in the arms, but if the rest of the body is not positioned correctly to support the bar, then the lift is likely to be lost. A common receiving position error as depicted by Figure 3 below, shows the weight of the bar toward the front of the base with hips are behind the bar and a pronounced forward lean of the torso. These factors tend to cause the athlete to have significant difficulty in maintaining stability of the bar overhead.

Forward Jerk Receiving Position Error
Figure 3: A common issue is a receiving position where the weight of the bar is to the front of the base of support reducing the athlete’s ability to stabilise the weight overhead.

The receiving position as shown by Figure 3 above is very likely to result in forward movement of the bar as the athlete struggles with the receiving position. This occurs not only because the weight is distributed toward the front of the base of support, but also because there will be an uneven amount of force emanating from both legs. The ideal situation as depicted by Figure 4 below, is a weight distribution over the centre of the base, and equal amount of force derived from each leg, and an equal amount of pressure through each foot.

It is important to have an equal amount of weight distribution on both feet.
Figure 4: The ideal situation in the Jerk receiving position is that there is an equal amount of pressure on both feet. In other words, there is an equal amount of force from both legs to support the body and the bar.

Issue #5: Pelvic rotation

Another all too common issue in the Jerk is Pelvic Rotation as depicted in Figure 5 below. Rotation of the Pelvis in a forward direction results in a hyper-extension of the lumbar spine, or Lordosis. Under heavy load (with a barbell overhead), it is ideal for the spinal shape to remain normal. Any adverse or exaggerated curvature of the spine increases the risk of injury. The cause of such pelvic rotation in the Jerk can be: (1) As a result of errors in the learning process for the Jerk Receiving position and/or (2) Tightness in hip flexors.  These issues are described later in this article.

Pelvic Tilt in the Jerk
Figure 5: A straight back leg in the jerk is associated with pelvic rotation and increased lumbar curvature